A computer system consists of hardware components and software components as well.
There are two types of software components:
- System software
- Application software
System software is software that is used to run and operate the computer system like windows operating system.
Application software is software designed to accomplish the specific tasks for an individual like MS office.
Hardware components are those components that are necessary for any computer system to run effectively. Without having compatible hardware, the software suite is useless. Following types are included in hardware components.
- Main memory
- Secondary memory
- Input devices
- Output devices
- CPU is the most essential part of computer system because it controls all the processing of system. When user gives the input to the system it goes in the CPU then it performs the functions according to the instructions. CPU is further divided into three components ALU (arithmetic logic unit), CU (control unit), MU (memory unit). ALU stands for arithmetic logic unit that performs all mathematical and logical functions like addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, comparison Memory unit stands for memory unit that acts as a storage house for computer system. All the processed data store in memory unit. A computer has three types of memory: RAM (random access memory), ROM (read only memory), hard disk. RAM is temporary memory, it saves the data until the computer system in on, when it gets shut down the all data is erased so it is better to save the data in hard disk because it is permanent memory and ROM is also permanent data storage of computer system. Control system stands for control system it controls all the function of computer whether it is mathematical, logical and so on. it is main component of the CPU because it handles the overall functionality of a system.
- A memory is said to be any space or capacity to store something. In computer system, memory works as a store house to store any data or information in it whether it is permanent and non- Memory travels into byte or bits forms: MB (mega-byte), KB (kilo-byte), TB (tera-byte), GB (giga-byte) and many others forms of memory included as well. RAM stands for random access memory used to store the data temporarily. It is temporary storage or said to be erasable memory, all the data or instructions store in it until it gets shut off, and after getting shut down or powered off the data or current information is loss so it is better to save the information permanently. RAMs are available with different sizes according to the requirements. It is look like ruler shaped or chip. ROM stands for read only memory used to store the data permanently. ROM contains a type of programming to start the computer and it booted up the system when you turn on it. ROM has many types like PROM (programmable read only memory), EPROM (erasable programmable read only memory), EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read only memory), and flash is also type of ROM. These all types are differentiated according to their specifications. Hard disk used to store the data or information permanently or retrieved it when needed. External hard disk and internal hard disk both are available according to the system’s needs. The data stored in hard disk is said to be permanent data until a user will delete it permanently. It is beneficial to having external hard disk because you attached the external one into any computer system but it is better to check those systems is free from viruses or threads because it can be harmful for your external hard disk.
- Keyboard is one of the input devices that takes the data from the user and displays it on the A keyboard has alphabets, numeric keys, special characters and keys. Each alphabet or number generates a binary code for the computer because computer do not recognize the human language so a standard is developed to understand that binary codes called as ASCII code, it is an American standard used to understand the conversions between binary codes and alphabets that are generated by the keyboard when user gives any input.
- Monitor works as an interface between user and a computer. Monitor includes other types of screen like LCD (liquid crystal display), LED (light emitting diodes) also. Monitor presents screen resolution in User gives any instructions to the computer it shows on the monitor screen. But nowadays, LCD and LED are commonly used in IT world instead of monitor display. Printers is one of the common output device used to print any file or document saved into file or it can generate the hard copy of any file or document. Printer has many types like laser printer, color printer and almost every IT department and computer based offices used these printers according to their needs. Representing a document in hard copy is the best to deliver any report.
- Headphones are similar like hands-free, headphones are available wired and wireless also in market. Basically, headphones are used listen any sound or voice whether it is song or it is voice and video call. It performs a main function in delivering voice from one point to another point. Headphones have functions of maximize or minimize the volume according to the pitch. They are available in different colors and sizes in mark
- Nowadays, buffers are used instead of speakers but speakers are still enlisted in the types of output They are used to display any audio cassette like songs etc. speakers are huge in size as well as smaller in size are also available in market. The most common brand of speakers and buffers is Audionic